Alternatives to Corporal Punishment for Improving Students’ Discipline In Public Secondary Schools In Eldama Ravine Sub-County, Baringo-Kenya
Kipkertich, Winnie Jeruto
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Learning institutions are expected to shape the moral behavior of students by providing code of conduct and ensure compliance to standards rules and regulations. However, due to various reasons, students often do not follow these rules and regulations as characterized by many cases of indiscipline among students in public secondary schools. Despite introduction of alternatives to corporal punishment by government, there are prevalent cases of indiscipline among students in public secondary schools. This study was set out to assess the efficacy of alternatives to corporal punishment as measures for improving students’ discipline in public secondary schools in Eldama Ravine Sub-County, Baringo, Kenya. The objectives of the study were to determine how guidance and counseling, involvement of student leaders in decision making, chaplaincy services, and rules and regulations affected improvement of student discipline in public secondary schools in Eldama Ravine Sub-County, Baringo Kenya. This study was guided by cognitive behavioral theory, contingency theory and Bandura self-efficacy theories. Descriptive survey research design was applied to collect data from 14 public secondary schools in Eldama Ravine sub-county in Baringo Kenya. The respondents were principals, teachers, counselors, chaplains and students. The study selected principals, counsellors and chaplains through census method. Teachers were sampled using simple random sampling technique. The students were first be sampled using stratified sampling method. Second, purposive sampling technique was then be used to only include students who were class prefects for uniformity. Both self-administered questionnaires and interview guides were utilized to collect data. One self-administered questionnaire was answered by teachers, counselors and chaplains while the other questionnaire was answered by students. School principals/deputies were interviewed accordingly. Pre-test enabled checking reliability and validity. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as median, frequencies and percentage. SPSS version 24 was used to analyze the data which was presented using tables and graphs. The overall results showed that the model was valid and was statistically significant, but each construct became insignificant in a combined model. All alternatives to corporal punishments work together (they were jointly significant, (P=0.028) and hence all of them should be emphasized and strengthened to address students’ discipline in secondary schools. The study found out that the secondary schools had put commendable focus on ensuring rules and regulations reduced indiscipline cases in secondary schools. Moreover, there was less attention on the relevance of chaplaincy in secondary schools. Though the government had previously put effort in strategizing to post spiritual leaders to all public secondary schools, three years later, which was yet to be operationalized fully. The study recommended that the ministry of education to liaise with clergy association of Kenya to get qualified chaplains that would be permanently posted in various secondary schools.