Efficacy of instructional supervision in public primary schools; a case of primary schools in Nyeri Central district, Nyeri county, Kenya.
Njuki, Joyce Muthoni
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ABSTRACT In spite of the societal demand for quality assurance in education and the need for thorough supervision in schools, there is a growing concern about the efficacy of the current supervision systems in place due to the doubt that many head teachers give little attention to supervision of instructional activities in primary schools. Consequently, there has been steady decline in dents' academic performance which depicts non-realization of quality assurance in primary schools. The study examined the efficacy of instructional supervision in primary schools. specifically, the study sought to establish the professional preparedness of the head teachers, frequency of supervisory tasks, nature of supervisory tasks and the kind of supervisory techniques employed by the head teachers. Since the perception of the supervisees determines how effective the systems can be, the teachers' opinions on the supervisory roles carried out by the head teachers was used to indicate the efficacy of the systems. Using a descriptive research design, the study covered all the 55 primary schools in Nyeri Central District, Nyeri County, Kenya. From the 55 schools in the location of study, 16 (30% of 55) schools were sampled at random from a list obtained from the DEO's office. Due to their small number, all the head teachers in the 16 schools sampled participated in the study. Due to their large number, 125(30% of 416) teachers in the 16 schools sampled participated in the study .All the head teachers of the primary schools in the district and the District Quality and Standards Officer (DQASO) participated in the study. A questionnaire and an interview schedule were used for data collection. A pilot study was conducted to ensure that the research instruments were of good quality. The questionnaires were administered to the teachers and head teachers and interview schedule to the DQASO. The data from the questionnaires was edited, coded and entered in the computer for analysis with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20). The results are presented in form of charts and tables to enhance clarity. On the efficacy of head teachers in instructional supervision, the study found that the head teachers demonstrated efficacy in providing instructional materials and facilities, motivating teachers for improved performance and in enforcing discipline. However, efficacy of the head teachers was found to be low in; making class visitations, defining of goals for academic achievement, monitoring classroom instruction, building capacity for teachers and in providing feedback on pupil's performance. Most head teachers possessed and used managerial skills such as evaluation skills, discipline skills; reportorial skills and interactive skills in carrying out instructional supervision and that most head teachers lacked and did not use pedagogical and analytical skills. Most head teachers had no training in instructional supervision. Most head teachers delegated supervisory duties to deputy head teachers and senior teachers. All the head teachers carried out lesson supervision and inspected professional documents and checked lesson notes and pupils work frequently. The study recommends that head teachers be trained on instructional supervision so as to make them more effective, that instructional supervision be incorporated in the training curriculum, and that head teachers be appointed on the basis of the skills and aptitudes.